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Thursday, 26 November, 2015 - 03:15 (UK)  

..:: The Subaru Impreza Story

1. The Subaru Impreza Story, as told by me
2. The History of the Subaru Impreza
3. Special Editions
4. Image Galleries
5. My 2001 Subaru Impreza WRX - Red Mica

..:: My 2001 UK Subaru Impreza WRX - Red Mica

NOTE: This page is SSSOOOOoooo... out of date! Had the car just over a year now, and it looks quite different to the pictures on this page.. Also had a few changes under the skin! Soon I'll report on what all has been done to the car.. Not much left to do now.. It's been one hell of a project at a fraction of the cost it would normally be if I had a garage do all the work! Stay tuned! For a sneek peak check out the Lochindorb gallery! (actually event that's more or less out of date now too.. Someone please give me a kick up the ar*e!)


SIDC Member Direct Car Parts Shop

UK Spec Standard 2001 Subaru Impreza WRX Finished in Red Mica 40,000 miles!

Sourced from Sunnyhill Motors in Turrif, Nov 2006.

Black privacy glass fitted which looks sweet against the Red Mica body! Really can't miss it when you see it on the road!

No plans for any modifications at the moment but I'm sure it wont be too long.... :o)
(23/03/07) Nope hasn't taken long at all.. Few cosmetic tweaks here and there since I bought the car, Mud flaps, front grills, fog lamp covers, grill inserts and some vinyl graphics. But the proper modding has started. Front & Rear aluminium top strut braces fitted wont have much affect at the moment unless used in conjunction with other suspension upgrades..

Soon to have the prodrive 3rd decat pipe fitted along with a Prodrive WRSport backbox (ooh burble) can't wait!

Other semi-planned mods are to the suspension. A set of Prodrive/Eibach springs would be nice, stiffer drop links, possibly new Anti-Roll bars. After that getting the suspension geometry reconfigured is a must. May got for the rally Group N settings as opposed to Prodrive configurations which tends to give uneven tyre wear. Only other change would be ECUTek remap for the ECU once the decat and backbox are fitted which would hopefully give bhp a kick up to around 265bhp from 215bhp, and a drop in 0-60 from 5.9sec to 4.8sec (as if it isn't fast enough). The possibilities for modifying truly are endless with these cars. But my pockets aren't that deep *sigh*

Finally got the 3rd cat delete pipe installed today thanks to Wallace Performance in aberdeen for removing the origonal cat pipe which was held in place by very dodgy workmanship!


If you spot me, don't forget to gimme a flash and a wave!!!

Useful Subaru Impreza parts Links:

(Coming Soon)



..:: Featured Motoring News feed

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Audi plots new petrol-electric hybrid powertrain for 2017
Audi A3 e-tron New electric motor tech paves the way for advanced petrol hybrid powertrain solutions

Audi is betting on the electrification of its future cars to improve real-world economy and reduce exhaust pollution, company bosses have told Autocar.

The move will also allow the company to usher in some highly advanced suspension innovations as well as providing a degree of autonomy that goes beyond simple driving assistance.

This shift towards ?mild hybrid? systems and more conventional plug-in hybrids should also result in Audi?s future line-up moving away from diesel engines, particularly across the company?s smaller models, including the A1, A3 and A4.

Moving to petrol hybrid engines will also allow Audi to exploit its new ?predictive efficiency assistant? technology, which uses mapping information and live traffic reports to automatically switch between power sources, as well as taking advantage of downhill stretches of road to ?coast? the engine.

The key to Audi?s move is the adoption of Integrated Starter Generators (ISG). These are large electric motors that act as the starter motor and alternator but can also assist the engine by sending torque through the drive belt to the engine?s crankshaft. The system is also fitted with a small lithium ion battery.

Audi has developed an ISG that works on an ordinary 12V electrical system, so it could be fitted to today?s A1 and A3 models. The company says the system allows the stop-start system to cut in below 9mph and also allows the engine to coast at high speeds, both significant fuel saving measures. The first production version is expected in 2017.

Today?s A3 1.4 TSI Ultra has a claimed economy figure of 60mpg, but the 12V ISG system would push that up to 65mpg. However, the combination of coasting and energy recuperation under braking could see the real-world economy of the ISG-equipped engine rise even higher than the lab figures suggest.

Audi is also planning to introduce a more powerful 48V ISG system, the first of which will be revealed before the end of the year, using a combined 12V and 48V set-up.

The 48V system allows for a much more powerful ISG (up from 1.5bhp to 16bhp) and periods of engine coasting of up to 30 seconds.

However, the introduction of full-scale 48V electronics into future models from 2017 will also allow Audi to introduce electrically driven engine compressors, which will come in two forms. Firstly, otherwise conventional turbochargers that are spun up by an electric motor will be able to provide boost even at very low crankshaft speeds.

The second type, as already seen on the RS5 Competition concept, is a separate electric compressor motor that forces air into the turbochargers at low engine speeds but can also eliminate turbo lag during higher-speed driving.

This 48V electrical system has also allowed Audi to develop three new suspension concepts, which capitalise on the fact that the 48V system provides as much as four times as much power as a 12V set-up.

First to arrive will be an active anti-roll bar system that uses planetary gears driven by small electric motors to couple and uncouple the roll bars individually from the chassis.

Uncoupled, the anti-roll bars will allow a more comfortable ride, but when active, Audi claims reduced understeer, less roll in corners and increased lateral acceleration. However, the anti-roll bars? twisting when locked allows the small electric motors to act as generators and create enough charge on a ?moderate bumpy road? to power the whole system.

Further away from production are the eROT electromechanical dampers. These compact, barrel-shaped dampers are about 10cm across and 15cm deep and are intended to replace conventional upright hydraulic dampers. They are connected to a lever arm which, through a series of gears, feeds the forces into an electric motor.

Not only do the eROT units save a great deal of space, but the rebound and compression damping rates can also be set in very fine increments independently of each other. The agitation of the dampers creates an electrical charge, and the rougher the road, the greater the amount of electricity generated.

Audi claims that these dampers could reduce a car?s average CO2 emissions by as much as 3g/km.

Audi's autonomous powertrain tech

Audi?s drive towards hybrids and electrification is part of a big move towards autonomous powertrain management. ?Predictive efficiency assistant? is being launched on the Q7 e-tron, due in the UK next March.

The system uses 3D information from the satellite navigation and live traffic information, which it picks up over the internet. Once the driver has entered the chosen destination in the sat-nav, the new software takes over control of the hybrid powertrain.

It calculates when to use the internal combustion engine, when to deploy both the engine and electric motor, when to run on the battery alone and when the battery charge needs to be preserved for use later in the journey. It even advises the driver when to coast in order to save fuel.

Audi?s engineers believe that this autonomous control of the hybrid powertrain will maximise economy and allow future models to drive through towns and villages in zero-emissions mode. Real-world fuel economy should also be markedly improved.

Throwback Thursday - GM's Mini for the 1980s, 3 December 1983
GM's Junior concept car was designed for the outdoors, and featured a raft of clever interior features as well as compact dimensions

The Vauxhall Adam was codenamed Junior during its development, harking back to a concept that was unveiled at the 1983 Frankfurt show.

The original car was the work of GM?s European design studio in Germany, headed by Wayne Cherry. They were given a brief to build a ?realistic studyof a future-orientated mini?.

Starting with the mechanical package of a Vauxhall Nova 1.2, they made a smooth, aerodynamic bodyshell that was eight inches shorter overall than a Nova and had a drag coefficient of 0.31.

The Junior was a three-door with accommodation for four and the usual seat-folding capability of a hatchback. The tailgate was double hinged so it ?jack-knifed? when opened, thereby needing 12in less space than a conventional tailgate. The concept featured a fixed plastic roof, but the idea was that it could be a removable glass panel or a fold-back canvas top.

The interior of GM?s design study ? ?designed for the young and the outdoor life?, according to Autocar?s description at the time ? contained a wealth of clever ideas that were intended to filter into production cars of all shapes and sizes.

The modular dashboard was essentially a row of cubes sitting atop the fascia rail ? some essential like the speedometer and fuel gauge, others optional. All were easily moved to other locations, as they were attached via integral plugs to a ?ring main? of wiring along the mounting rail.

The design made it easier for left or right-hand-drive versions to be made and would enable an owner to select and install extra instruments with ease.

The seats had tubular frames with moulded plastic back supports that could be adjusted up and down by ski boot-like buckles. They were covered with padded nylon one-piece cushions, like duvets, which could be unbuckled, removed and opened out to be used as sleeping bags or ground sheets.

The rear seat featured similar cushions, but the seatback was a nylon net on a tubular frame which, when swung forward to increase the load space, formed a full-depth luggage barrier or dog guard.

GM?s designers had a lot of fun creating specially formed luggage to fit into the Junior. ?There is room in the bottom of the wide doors for big net pockets that can contain either soft bags or ?modular? hard-shell cases,? explained Autocar at the time.

?The latter have been made into beauty cases, camera holdalls, tool kits and so on, and the same size box shell can be used in the fascia itself and on runners under the front seats. They seem to have thought of everything.?

The tailgate had a warning triangle on the roller blind in its trailing edge, while the seatbelt pivot points on the door pillars could be moved up and down to provide the optimum belt run for drivers and passengers of all sizes.

While the Junior was purely for show, some elements of the interior packaging were intended for production cars.

?It is not for sale, but more than one visitor to the show was prepared to buy it at any price,? wrote Autocar. ?We can be sure that the Junior will never go into production in its present form, but we are equally confident that ideas and themes from it will find their way into cars of the future.?

Previous Throwback Thursdays

4 March 1899 - Steam, electric or combustion engine? 

26 June 1906 - The first French Grand Prix

9 July 1907 - The beginning of Brooklands

14 February 1913 - 100 miles in one hour

8 April 1916 - Making post-war predictions

25 March 1922 - Caterpillar tracks are the future

4 July 1925 - Citroën lights up the Eiffel Tower

28 September 1928 - Engine tech takes a great leap forwards

2 February 1934 - The ethics of skidding

6 July 1934 - A tour of Cowley

1 June 1935 - Introduction of the driving test

22 June 1945 - Driving through post-WW2 Europe

21 January 1949 - Tidier tails

25 August 1950 - The evolution of transmissions

27 April 1951 - Frankfurt hosts its first motor show

24 April 1959 - Aston Martin enters Formula 1

16 September 1960 - The beginning of MOT tests

28 October 1960 - Economy driving 1960s style

27 January 1961 - Ford Thunderbird road test

17 November 1961 - TVR Grantura road test

10 September 1965 - The birth of modern Audi

19 August 1966 - Four-wheel drive on test

6 May 1971 - Driving Ford's Supervan

12 June 1976 - Cars for under £100

10 July 1976 - Land's End to John O'Groats on one tank

8 October 1977 - Music on the move

13 May 1978 - Ferrari 512 BB road test

14 November 1979 - Mazda RX-7 road test

19 January 1980 - Talbot Horizon road test

13 February 1982 - 4x4s tested on the farm 

17 April 1985 - Secrets of a lost British supercar

4 September 1985 - Ford's electronic test bed

15 August 1990 - Giugiaro's vision of a 1990s Jaguar

11 November 1992 - Green light for Jaguar's new E-Type

28 April 1993 - BL's unseen concepts

16 March 1994 - Bentley's Concept Java

16 April 1997 - When Bugatti bit the dust

11 October 2000 - BMW X5 Le Mans

4 April 2001 - 0-260mph in 6.0 seconds

25 July 2001 - 180mph in a Chevrolet Corvette

9 November 1934 - What is a sports car?

The day I said goodbye to Richard Burns
It's not often that a top rally driver asks the journalist for an interview ? but that's what happened on the last day our man saw the 2001 World Champion

It is, as my colleague Matt Burt put it earlier today, a poignant time of the year for rally fans, as we remember not only the world titles of Colin McRae and Richard Burns but also, sadly, the death of the Englishman through a brain tumour precisely four years to the day after he claimed the sport?s top prize.

My own thoughts fly back to a quiet Monday afternoon in the office of weekly motorsport title Autosport in late 2003. I was pretty much done piecing together the rally news for that week?s issue when the phone rang. It was Claire Caudwell from the CSS management firm that represented Richard Burns, calling to inform me that her man would ?like a chat?.

Calls like this are not received lightly. More than their F1 counterparts, rally journalists rely on direct access to the drivers (I once befuddled Autosport?s F1 man by informing him that I had all of the top drivers? mobile numbers; he didn?t even have Michael Schumacher?s PA?s number). So when a top man like Richard calls you in for an audience, it?s normally to deliver a dressing down for mis-quoting him or getting a fact wrong in a report. I?d had my fair share of chewings ? and not just from Burnsie.

Still, the request for an interview was slightly odd. ?He wants to go over Rally Catalunya,? said Claire. ?Can you come to his place in London, say, tomorrow morning??

Now it made a little more sense. Burnsie had been, frankly, pretty poor during the most recent round of the series, running in the bottom half of the top 10 before crashing out without much of an explanation on the final day. It was a stark contrast with his drive on the same event 12 months earlier, when he'd kept Peugeot's renowned asphalt specialist Gilles Panizzi very honest throughout the three days. Richard's time with Peugeot Sport was coming to an end and while he was still one of four drivers who could go into the final round of the WRC, Rally GB, with a shot at the title, he clearly wanted to reassert himself after an unusually poor run in Spain.

So at some ungodly hour of the following day, I moseyed up to a smart, spacious apartment in Maida Vale to meet Richard. With Claire and his girlfriend watching TV in the background, he was in relaxed mode, but the steely determination and focus that I?d seen so often was clearly evident.

No, he did not have an explanation yet for why Catalunya had gone so badly. Yes, he was confident that switching back to Subaru to replace the retiring Tommi Mäkinen for the 2004 season was the right move. Yes, he was confident of a good display in the Welsh forests ? especially if it happened to be foggy (for all his incredible natural ability, Colin McRae could never match his local rival when visibility dropped to a few yards).

After an hour or so it was time to head back to the office to write up the story - and time for me to impart one small piece of news of my own to Richard. Autosport was about to take me off the world rally circuit, as it turned out, and bump me from deputy editor to editor - promotion, if you want to call it that.

Richard smiled at the news; then he reached across to tap me solidly on the head. ?Big chief editor, eh? Check out the brain on John Mac,? he japed, to giggles from the others in the room. ?You won?t be wanting to speak to us for much longer, then; you?ll be loving it up with the F1 lot.?

I assured him this wouldn?t be the case. He smiled again, shook my hand, and closed the door.

And that was the last time I?d see him. My memories of half a dozen years reporting on WRC come and go - great action, great characters, great moments - but for all sorts of reasons, those few seconds are burned into my soul.

The following week I was piecing together the rally pages for Autosport once more when word reached us that Richard would not, after all, be part of the four-way title fight on Rally GB, after being taken ill during the pre-event reconnaissance. The crown would go to Petter Solberg after a thrilling fight with Sébastien Loeb - but it would be a week or two before the gravity of Richard's situation would emerge.

Burnsie fought like hell, but within two years he was gone. He was a consummate professional, a hell of a driver and, above all, a thoroughly decent human being. I miss him still.

A foundation set up in Richard?s name continues to do good work for those facing neurological injury and illness. You can access it at, and watch a moving video tribute to the man below.

VW emissions scandal: fixes announced for EA189 diesel engines
Volkswagen details the technical fixes it will use to bring two of its EA189 diesel engines into line with current emissions legislation

Volkswagen Group has detailed the technical fixes which will be used to bring two of its EA189 diesel engines into line with current emissions standards.

The fixes, which are for the 1.6-litre and 2.0-litre diesel engines, have been presented to the KBA authority in Germany to be ratified before being offered to the public. Volkswagen says the fixes rectify emissions on "the majority" of vehicles affected by the ongoing emissions scandal. In a statement, Volkswagen says "after implementation of the technical measures, the vehicles will comply with the applicable emissions standards."

Detailing the measures which will be taken to remove the 'defeat device' software from its engines, Volkswagen revealed the following information.

EA189 1.6-litre diesel engine - VW says a new 'flow transformer', a mesh used to calm air flow around the air mass sensor, will be fitted. The sensor is used to measure air mass throughput, and helps to regulate the internal combustion process. In addition, a software update will be applied. In all, the fix should take less than one hour.

EA189 2.0-litre diesel engine - These engines will only receive a software update, which should take less than half an hour.

"Thanks to advances in engine development and improved simulation of currents inside complex air intake systems, in combination with software optimisation geared towards this, it has been possible to produce a relatively simple and customer-friendly measure," reads VW's statement.

"The objective for the development of the technical measures is still to achieve the applicable emission targets in each case without any adverse effects on the engine output, fuel consumption and performance. However, as all model variants first have to be measured, the achievement of these targets cannot yet be finally confirmed."

The technical solution for the 1.2-litre EA189 engine will be presented to the KBA at the end of this month, VW said. The company also said its sister brands, Audi, Seat, Skoda and VW Commerical Vehicles, were also planning their own corresponding measures to fix affected vehicles

VW admits 3.0-litre engines are affected

Earlier this month, VW admitted that its 3.0-litre diesel engines are also affected by the widening emissions scandal - potentially affecting another 85,000 vehicles.

Officials from Volkswagen and Audi admitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency last week that vehicles with those engines also contained 'auxiliary emissions control equipment' that was not reported to the US authorities. It is understood that this latest admission affects cars from the 2009-2016 model years.

A Volkswagen spokesperson confirmed to Autocar that this latest revelation only affects cars in the US, and refers to an auxiliary emissions control device that warms the catalyst from cold. The device is designed to reduce emissions and protect the engine during colder starts. The spokesperson said that the allegation of more cheating has surfaced because VW didn't declare the device during the vehicle homologation process. It's understood that the device has been declared illegal because it wasn't registered as part of the test.

The EPA had alleged earlier this month that VW's 3.0-litre V6 engine was also cheating in emissions tests, something the company had initially denied. The EPA says that NOx emissions on the affected vehicles are up to nine times legal limits. It has identified the VW TouaregPorsche Cayenne and Audi A6Audi A7Audi A8, Audi A8L and Audi Q5 as being potentially affected.

Speaking to Reuters, Audi spokesman Brad Stertz said that while the auxiliary emissions control software is 'legal' in Europe, Audi did not "properly notify regulators" of the device.

Sterz said: "We are willing to take another crack at reprogramming to a degree that the regulators deem acceptable." He also said that the cost of rectifying the software would be in the "double digits millions of euros."

Cynthia Giles, assistant administrator for the Office for EPA's Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, said: "VW has once again failed its obligation to comply with the law that protects clean air for all Americans.

"All companies should be playing by the same rules. EPA, with our state, and federal partners, will continue to investigate these serious matters, to secure the benefits of the Clean Air Act, ensure a level playing field for responsible businesses, and to ensure consumers get the environmental performance they expect."

The EPA documentation alleges that the affected cars have "software in the electronic control module of these vehicles that senses when the vehicle is being tested for compliance with EPA emissions standards. When the vehicle senses that it is undergoing a federal emissions test procedure, it operates in a low NOx 'temperature conditioning' mode. Under that mode, the vehicle meets emission standards.

"At exactly one second after the completion of the initial phases of the standard test procedure, the vehicle immediately changes a number of operating parameters that increase NOx emissions and indicates in the software that it is transitioning to 'normal mode' where emissions of NOx increase up to nine times the EPA standard, depending on the vehicle and type of driving conditions," said an EPA statement.

"In other tests where the vehicle does not experience driving conditions similar to the start of the federal test procedure, the emissions are higher from the start, consistent with 'normal mode.'?

VW executives could face jail sentences

Executives in the UK could be imprisoned for up to 10 years for their part in the emissions scandal, secretary of state for transport Patrick McLoughlin has revealed.

Responding to enquiries from Louise Ellman MP, who chairs the Commons? Transport Committee, McLoughlin revealed that the department for transport (DfT) could prosecute VW for providing ?materially false? type approval information under the Road Vehicles (Approval) Regulations 2009 - an offence that is liable for an unlimited fine.

He added that the Competition and Markets Authority could launch action under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 for unfair commercial practices, leaving VW liable for an unlimited fine or two years? imprisonment, or both.

Finally, he added that the Serious Fraud Office may prosecute VW for making a gain from false representations, an offence under the Fraud Act 2006. This subject to a maximum 10 years? imprisonment, an unlimited fine, or both.

In the wide-ranging letter, McLoughlin also confirmed that every other manufacturer type approved in the UK had now written to him confirming they have not been involved in any cheating of the testing system, and he made it clear that the government's primary focus was to ensure that buyers of affected cars were not materially affected. As such, he reported he had sought reassurances from VW that cars would be fixed without affecting performance by the end of 2016, and made it clear that VW would be liable for any backdated fines.

McLoughlin added that there are ?no specific plans? to change MOT emission tests at the present time, but he admitted that he may use the tests to monitor whether owners of affected vehicles have the fixes put in place.

It has since been confirmed that fixes for the EA189 2.0-litre engine will be approved in January/February next year before being rolled out in March. Fixes for the EA189 1.2-litre engines will be approved in April/May next year and will be rolled out in June, and fixes for the EA189 1.6-litre engine will be approved in July/August/September before being rolled out in October.

He also outlined further details of the UK government's independent testing of vehicles, to verify figures. While stressing that such tests were at an early stage, and making it clear VW would pay for them, he added that the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA), which is responsible for vehicle type approval, is working closely with its French and German counterparts to retest vehicles from a variety of other manufacturers in order to avoid a duplication of effort. He said the results would be reported in the spring.

Volkswagen could buy back affected vehicles in Europe

Volkswagen is preparing to buy back some of the vehicles affected by CO2 irregularities in Europe, as the fallout from its emissions scandal continues.

According to the Financial Times, if VW's re-testing of those affected vehicles reveals that CO2 emissions have been understated by more than 10%, then customers will have the opportunity to sell their cars back to VW at the current market value.

Speaking to the paper, a Volkswagen spokesman said: "We have to think that maybe people will give the car back. When we have the [test] figures there could be a chance for people to say 'I can hand back my car because you told me the wrong number'."

A statement from Volkswagen says the company has identified 430,000 VW, Audi, Skoda and Seat models from the 2016 model year which are affected by CO2 irregularities, which form part of the 800,000 total revealed last week.

Customers affected by the CO2 irregularities can expect to receive an official letter from VW in the coming weeks.

VW to offer cash incentives

Earlier this month, it emerged that Volkswagen would offer cash incentives of up to £1500 to existing UK customers as it tries to avert the potential sales affect caused by the emissions scandal.

Dealer correspondence leaked to Autocar shows that in response to concerns from VW?s British sales network, the company is going to top up any discounts offered to existing customers trading in a VW of any age with a further cash incentive - £400 on the Up city car, rising to £1000 on the Golf and Passat, and £1500 on the Touareg and Sharan.

The VW advice tells dealers, ?This bonus is in addition to current tactical and does not impact your ability to determine the selling price of the vehicle.? It adds that the offer will last until the end of January 2016. Other vehicles eligible for a £1000 incentive include Golf SV, Cabriolet and Estate, Beetle and Beetle Cabriolet, Scirocco, Jetta, Touran, Tiguan, CC and all electric vehicles.

VW?s British sales dipped slightly in October - along with those of several of its rivals, as the official figures dropped for the first time in 43 months. However, market analysts suggest that a large number of potential buyers are delaying their purchase - and VW?s loyalty bonus is clearly designed to negate that issue. It mirrors a scheme introduced in the United States, where existing customers can get up to $1500 off selected models.

A VW UK spokesman said, ?Any manufacturer scheme is designed to react to trends in the market, and you could say this does the same. We think this is an attractive offer for existing owners.?

German emissions investigators target 23 different manufacturers

German automotive industry regulator Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) has announced it is conducting independent emissions tests on cars and vans made by 23 different marques.

In a statement, the KBA said the tests were being conducted as a result of the Volkswagen emissions scandal, but also suggested that accusations of cheating elsewhere in the car industry had been made. It cited ?verified indications from third parties regarding unusual pollutants emissions?.

?Since the end of September, KBA has been investigating whether further manipulation of emissions, of nitrogen oxides in particular, is taking place in the market,? said the statement.

It added that it had already tested two-thirds of the vehicles named, comparing laboratory test results with real-world figures, but did not give any clues as to the results.

All of the KBA?s tests are believed to be focused on diesel engines.

Alfa Romeo: Alfa Romeo GuiliettaAudi: Audi A6, Audi A3BMW: BMW 3 Series, BMW 5 SeriesChevrolet: Chevrolet CruzeDacia: SD engineFiat: Fiat Panda, Fiat DucatoFord: Ford Focus, Ford C-MaxHonda: Honda HR-VHyundai: Hyundai iX35, Hyundai i20Land Rover: Range Rover EvoqueJeep: Jeep CherokeeMazda: Mazda 6Mercedes: Mercedes C-Class, Mercedes CLS, Mercedes Sprinter, Mercedes V-ClassMini: Mini CooperMitsubishi: Mitsubishi ASXNissan: Nissan NavaraPeugeot: Peugeot 308Porsche: Porsche MacanRenault: Renault KadjarSmart: Smart FortwoToyota: Toyota AurisVauxhall: Vauxhall Astra, Vauxhall Insignia, Vauxhall ZafiraVolvo: Volvo V60VW: VW Golf, VW Beetle, VW Passat, VW Touran, VW Touareg, VW Golf Sportsvan, VW Polo, VW Crafter, VW Amarok

VW Group admits 800,000 cars may have false CO2 ratings; Porsche and petrol engines implicated

In early November, the Volkswagen Group was plunged into further crisis after admitting that up to 800,000 petrol and diesel-powered cars had their CO2 and mpg ratings wrongly certified.

In a statement, VW revealed: "Under the ongoing review of all processes and workflows in connection with diesel engines it was established that the CO2 levels and thus the fuel consumption figures for some models were set too low during the CO2 certification process. The majority of the vehicles concerned have diesel engines."

It also pledged to "immediately start a dialogue with the responsible type approval agencies regarding the consequences of these findings". The statement also described the situation as a "not yet fully explained issue".

A VW spokesman confirmed that the latest scandal affects AudiSeatSkoda and VW cars with what are described as "small" engines. Reports suggest that cars powered by the 1.4-litre four-cylinder petrol engine with Cylinder On Demand technology are affected. Further reports suggest that VW BlueMotion diesel models with three and four-cylinder diesel engines are also affected.

The company said it has set aside two billion euros (£1.4bn) to cover the cost of this latest revelation, although it cautioned that it would need to consult officials before fully understanding the legal and econimic implications of the discovery. It has not said whether it will compensate owners of affected cars.

In the statement, Matthias Müller, CEO of Volkswagen, said: ?From the very start I have pushed hard for the relentless and comprehensive clarification of events. We will stop at nothing and nobody. This is a painful process, but it is our only alternative. For us, the only thing that counts is the truth. That is the basis for the fundamental realignment that Volkswagen needs. The Board of Management of Volkswagen AG deeply regrets this situation and wishes to underscore its determination to systematically continue along the present path of clarification and transparency.?

The VW statement also stressed that the safety of the vehicles affected is in no way compromised.

Meanwhile, the Supervisory Board of the VW Group issues a separate statement expressing alarm at the latest discovery. It said: "The Supervisory Board is deeply concerned by the discovery of irregularities found when determining CO2 levels for the type approval of Volkswagen Group vehicles. The Supervisory Board and the special committee set up for the purpose of clarification will meet in the very near future to consult on further measures and consequences. The Supervisory Board will continue to ensure swift and meticulous clarification. In this regard, the latest findings must be an incentive for the Supervisory Board and the Board of Management to do their utmost to resolve such irregularities and rebuild trust."

VW EA288 engine given the all-clear

Following a previous rumour of more widespread cheating, Volkswagen was forced to issue a statement saying that its EA288 engine does not contain the 'defeat device' software that has plunged the company into crisis.

German news agency DPA had reported that early EU5-compliant versions of the EA288 motor - a unit derived from the EA189 design that?s been at the heart of the emissions scandal - were under scrutiny by VW engineers as they tried to establish the full extent of the problem.

VW itself issued a statement confirming that it was examining the engines - but now it says that process has been completed and that "no software constituting an improper defeat device as defined in law is installed in vehicles with EA288 engines".

The conclusion is an important one for the troubled German manufacturer because it could have faced millions of further recalls if the EA288 engines - sold in 1.6- and 2.0-litre versions across the VW Group's range of brands - had been found to contain the code that sparked off the emissions scandal.

VW's statement added, "New vehicles of the Volkswagen Group offered within the European Union with those engines comply with legal requirements and environmental standards."

UK recall 'won't be mandatory'

The UK's Department for Transport has confirmed that it won't be issuing a mandatory recall for cars affected by Volkswagen's emissions scandal in this country.

Speaking to Autocar, a DfT spokesman confirmed that the UK won't follow the example set by the German authorities in issuing a mandatory recall for affected cars. Volkswagen has already started a voluntary recall program for cars in this country, but the DfT has made clear that "this is VW's position and VW's problem."

"We will continue to put pressure on VW to make sure this happens as quickly as possible," said the spokesman "so that people in the UK can have these problems fixed.

"The government has been putting pressure on VW to address these issues quickly. The government expects VW to set up the next steps on how they are going to correct this problem and support owners in the UK. In the past few weeks the Transport Secretary has spoken to the German Transport Minister about the actions of VW, and has been reassured that the German authorities are working closely with VW."

In Germany, the federal transport authority, the KBA, is forcing Volkswagen to recall the 2.4 million cars in the country which have its 'defeat device' software installed.

Criminal enquiry targets "fewer than 10 staff"

Criminal prosecutors in German who are investigating the dieselgate scandal have identified fewer than 10 suspects, despite earlier rumours that up to 30 staff could be implicated. Klaus Ziehe, spokesman for the prosecutors in the German city of Brunswick, told news agency AFP that investigators suspect "more than two but a lot fewer than 10 people". 

VW's UK boss faces MPs

Last month, Volkswagen UK boss Paul Willis admitted that his company's so-called 'defeat device' did affect the results of emissions tests in Europe.

Previously, the German manufacturer has only confirmed that the software-based emissions cheat was present on some vehicles in Europe - and had not outlined whether the defeat device was active during the NEDC emissions test used across the EU.

However, when asked during a 45-minute grilling from MPs on the transport select committee if the defeat device had been used during type approval testing for the UK, Willis admitted, "It seems from what I understand - and I'm not an engineer - that the system of gas regulation in the engine influenced the NOx output in cars that we sell in the UK. These cars are type approved across all of Europe, of course, and they're type approved in Germany, with separate people overlooking it.

"We mishandled the situation in so far as our engines behaved differently within the testing regime to the real world. That's why we need to fix the cars, that's why we need to get the customers in, and that's why we need to put the cars right. We mishandled the situation, without a shadow of a doubt.

"It seems that in the test regime the engine behaved differently to the real-world situation via software. The software affected the flow of gas to the engine which reduced the NOx."

Willis said VW reacted "as quickly as possible"

The session at the House of Commons was the first opportunity for the transport select committee - a cross-party body made up of 11 MPs - to question VW representatives or the car industry on the dieselgate scandal.

Willis came under particular pressure on the amount of time taken by VW UK to remove affected vehicles - around 4000 cars still on the market - from sale. He argued that the firm had acted as quickly as possible, saying, "On 22nd September we were made aware by VW headquarters in Wolfsburg that there was a potential problem with diesel engines. On 28th September we were getting more details and I phoned Mr McLoughlin [Patrick McLoughin, the Transport Secretary] to say to him that as soon as I knew which vehicles were affected, I would voluntarily stop selling those cars. That phone call took place at 3pm on 28th September.

"On 30th September, at 9am in the morning, I received the VIN numbers from the various different factories. And this is the point: there were eight days between when we first knew it affected Europe and when I stopped selling cars. And the reason for that is the complexity of the number of cars involved. There are 60 different models, five different brands, three different engines and two different transmissions.

"I found the VIN numbers out precisely at 9am, and at 1.30pm, once I had clarified it with the computer systems, I stopped selling those cars voluntarily. It took four hours and 30 minutes from the time I knew the affected cars until I took action - four hours and 30 minutes."

Existing test comes under fire from MPs

Both Willis and the chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, Mike Hawes, were asked if the current emissions testing procedure was fit for purpose. Hawes admitted that the difference between real-world figures and those provided by the NEDC could be "up to 30%". "These figures are meant for a comparison process and always contain a disclaimer about the real world and this is for some very sensible comparitive reasons," he said.

"The test cycle dates back to the early 1980s and the industry recognises it isn't fit for purpose," he added. "When you put a vehicle on the test cycle, for instance, all of the electronic devices that you would turn on in the real world - air-conditioning, heating, sat-nav, Bluetooth - all of that has to be switched off, by law, because when the regulation was created that sort of technology wasn't available. Then there's the issue of real-world driving conditions - congestion, temperature, load, gradient - all huge and all ruled out by the test cycle to get a repeatable cycle."

Hawes said he believes a more realistic testing cycle will be introduced on a compulsory basis from the beginning of 2017.

Willis also criticised the current testing procedure. He said: "If we look at the test regime on emissions, we know it is old-fashioned and not fit for purpose. We need completely independent tests that look at all sorts of detail, like Euro NCAP, which uses real-world testing. We need to look at that."

"We have a duty to the public to reassure them [customers] that our cars are safe. There is no relation to safety with this issue but we do need to regain trust and we will do that with transparency."

Willis also apologised to VW customers in the UK saying: "Volkswagen has significantly let down its customers and the wider public. We recognise we've fallen short of the standards expected and we will take all the necessary steps to regain trust."

VW UK could pay back missing tax to government

Willis has promised that the VW Group will speak to Her Majesty's Revenue & Customs to discuss any tax payments on vehicles that may need to be made the wake of the dieselgate scandal. When asked if the firm had measures in place to compensate the Treasury for any revenues missed because of the defeat devices, Willis said, "I'm not sure there's any clear evidence that the CO2 emissions on these cars are different in the real world. But we can have a conversation downstream. The British taxpayer should not be out of pocket and if necessary, we will have a meeting with HMRC."

The scale of VW's global problem

In total, VW has said that just under 11 million vehicles worldwide have the software 'defeat device' that was exposed in American emissions tests last month. While two-thirds are thought to be fixable with a software upgrade, it's believed that a total of 3.6 million affected VW, Audi, Skoda and Seat models - those featuring the 1.6-litre version of the EA189 turbodiesel engine - will require hardware changes to correct the issue. US models may require the addition of a urea tank, whereas European editions of the 1.6 are likely to need new fuel injectors.

VW's new CEO Matthias Müller has pledged that all affected cars will be fixed by the end of next year. He added: "Our most important task will be to regain lost confidence with our customers, partners, investors and the general public. The first step in this direction will be a fast and relentless examination and explanation. Only when everything comes to the table, only when things are completely explained, only then will people trust us again.

"Believe me, I too am impatient. But in this situation, in which we are dealing with four brands and many models, care is more important than speed.

"The technical solutions to the problems are in sight. By contrast, the business and financial consequences are not yet foreseeable."

VW, Audi, Skoda and Seat launch websites for owners to check if they are affected

Volkswagen, Audi, Skoda and Seat have launched websites that allow owners to check if their car is affected by the emissions scandal.   

The VW site collapsed soon after launch as a result of the amount of traffic trying to access it, but has since been functioning normally. Sites from AudiSkoda and Seat are all running without problem.

Government won't hike tax bills

The Government has confirmed that UK taxpayers will not be hit by a higher tax bill if it turns out that their cars were found to have cheated tests.

Transport secretary Patrick McLoughlin said: ?The government expects VW to support owners of these vehicles already purchased in the UK and we are playing our part by ensuring no one will end up with higher tax costs as a result of this scandal.?

He also confirmed that the Department for Transport has pushed for more clarity on the matter and that the next round of tests will look at whether the software ?is being used elsewhere?.

"Neither cars, nor the testing facilities will be provided by the vehicle industry themselves". VW has offered to pay for this testing if the government requests it does so.

VW's remaining EU5 stock taken off sale in the UK

Following the scandal, Volkswagen Group UK took 4000 cars fitted with the EA189 engine off sale, pending investigations into how it will remove the illegal software that cheated US emissions tests while still ensuring the cars comply with all emissions regulations.

The move covered vehicles from Audi, Seat, Skoda, Volkswagen, and the cars and commercial vehicles affected represent around 3% of the Group?s total UK stock. They are expected to be put back on sale once the Group?s modifications have been put in place.

A spokesman stressed that the decision to withdraw the cars from sale was a voluntary measure, rather than a regulatory one. The vehicles remained on sale beyond the September 1 deadline for Euro 6 emissions regulations to come in to effect because legislation allows manufactures to clear stock of Euro 5 engined vehicles. VW has previously confirmed all of its cars fitted with the latest, Euro 6-classified engines are fully legal.

It has also been announced that anyone with an order placed for an affected car will be given the choice of withdrawing from the sale without penalty, taking delivery of the car after the modifications have been fitted or taking delivery of the car as soon as it is available and then having the required modifications retro-fitted.

More than 1.1m UK cars affected

The full number of cars to be recalled in the UK under VW's voluntary scheme is 1,189,906, and this is spread across five different brands in the VW Group. Volkswagen accounts for the majority, with 508,276 cars affected, while Audi has to recall 393,450 models. Skoda also has a notable number affected, with 131,569. Seat and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles are also involved, with 76,773 and 79,838 vehicles being recalled respectively.

In a statement, the firm said: ?Customers with these vehicles will be kept informed over the coming weeks and months. All of the Group brands affected will set up national websites to update customers on developments.?

It is not yet known whether the owners of affected cars will be offered compensation. Various lobbying groups are claiming that the potential loss of value to the cars should be reimbursed by Volkswagen.

A spokesman had previously confirmed that VW will not rush a technical solution, preferring to focus on getting it right. He said: "We don't want to be fast - we want to be certain. Over the next days and weeks we will write to all affected customers and we will put in place free-of-charge fixes for all affected customers."

However, the spokesman was unable to confirm whether the revisions would require the vehicles to be recertified for their emissions and economy figures.

The official VW statement reads: "An internal evaluation on Friday established that a service procedure is required for some five million vehicles from the Volkswagen Passenger Cars brand out of a total eleven million Group vehicles worldwide. These vehicles from certain models and model years (such as the sixth generation Volkswagen Golf, the seventh generation Volkswagen Passat or the first generation Volkswagen Tiguan) are fitted with Type EA 189 diesel engines."

Why did VW cheat?

A senior source within the German car industry has shed light on the most significant outstanding question of the VW emissions scandal, namely why?

If the offending cars have all the emissions equipment on board to make the car compliant with the regulations, why take such an enormous risk engineering in the ?defeat device? to bypass that equipment?

?I expect it was pressure on the engineers that made them do it,? said the source. ?Remember this system was designed some time ago when emissions controls were not as sophisticated as they are now, and the pressure to pass the tests would have been immense.

?And I imagine the reason they installed the defeat device is that without it there would have serious consequences not in the laboratory but on the road, either with the car?s performance, driveability, fuel consumption or some combination of the three.?

He went on to confirm that technology has since evolved sufficiently for there to be no need for such devices today.

So why, then, did VW not simply stop using the defeat device when it was no longer needed? ?There are two possible reasons. First it would likely have been integrated within the entire electronic architecture of the car and not easy to remove, second to remove it those responsible for its installation would have first to have flagged up the fact that they?d put it there, which they?d probably not be too keen to do??

The source said he believed the defeat device was likely to be present also on VW products sold in Europe with the EA189 engine [since confirmed by a German minister] but almost certainly not active which he said, was ?nothing like as bad as having active, but still illegal?.

He said also he believed that VW alone was using such a device and that all other German car manufacturers had no equivalent systems on the cars they sold today.

The one remaining question is who signed off the defeat device. Former VW boss Martin Winterkorn has denied knowledge of it and his resignation, while inevitable, was no kind of admission of guilt.

Whoever was responsible, it seems likely that more heads will have to roll before the true picture emerges.

11m Audis, Seats, Skodas and VWs affected globally

While the VW Group has said that 11 million vehicles worldwide are affected by the scandal, only 5m are from Volkswagen brand itself. Audi has revealed that 2.1 million vehicles from its brand are affected worldwide, with 1.42 million of those being in Western Europe. Skoda has also revealed that 1.2 million of its cars worldwide are affected by the scandal. Seat has said that 700,000 of its vehicles are affected globally. 

A VW Group statement read: "As previously announced, all new Volkswagen Passenger Car brand vehicles that fulfill the EU6 norm valid throughout Europe are not affected. This therefore also includes the current Golf, Passat and Touran models."

The figures also include 1.8 million light commercial vehicles.

SMMT: just because VW cheated, it doesn't mean the whole industry is cheating

Speaking at a conference on air quality, chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) Mike Hawes said: "Consumers are right to be concerned following the events of the past ten days. But we must remember, the actions of one company do not mean collusion. Implicating other brands or companies would be unfair and wrong.

"It would be wrong to penalise all diesels. The latest diesel vehicles are the cleanest ever - effectively reducing nitrogen oxide levels by 92% compared with earlier generations. They make a significant contribution to climate change targets, an environmental challenge which cannot be ignored.

"We recognise the current regulations for testing are out of date. We want, for consumers and our own industry?s integrity, a new emissions test that embraces new technologies, and which is more representative of on the road conditions."

VW's global meltdown

There have been calls for governmental probes in to VW?s actions from around the world since the firm admitted cheating in the US emissions tests, including in Canada, Germany, Italy, South Korea, UK and the USA. The UK government has already announced it will launch an inquiry into the scandal.

VW has put aside a fund of ?6.5bn (approximately £4.7bn) to cover the costs of dealing with the issue, and says it will adjust its financial targets for 2015 as a result. The matter came to light when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) revealed that while testing 2.0-litre, four-cylinder diesel cars of the Volkswagen Group they detected electronic manipulations that violate American environmental standards.

Reports have since surfaced that Volkswagen was warned about the legality of its software as far back as 2007.

According to the EPA, this means that the cars under investigation could be emitting up to 40 times the national standard for nitrogen oxide (NOx), which is linked to asthma and lung illnesses. The cars affected are 2009-2014 Jettas, Beetles, Golfs, Audi A3s, and VW Passats built from 2014-15.

The issue will be investigated by the US Congress?s Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee.

?Strong emissions standards are in place for the benefit of public health,? said House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton and Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee Chairman Tim Murphy in a joint statement.

?Manufacturers throughout the United States, and across the world, have developed leading technologies to reduce airborne emissions within the limits set by EPA and state environmental agencies. However, reported EPA allegations that certain Volkswagen models contained software to defeat auto emissions tests raise serious questions,? they said.

?We will follow the facts. We are also concerned that auto consumers may have been deceived ? that what they were purchasing did not come as advertised. The American people deserve answers and assurances that this will not happen again. We intend to get those answers.?

A date for the US Congress hearing has yet to be set. Since the scandal broke the VW Group share price has fallen by more than 50% from its 2015 high.

VW emissions scandal: how it unfolded

The Volkswagen emissions scandal is currently headline news, but the story has its roots in May 2014, when a study found higher-than-clamed emissions coming from two Volkswagen vehicles. Here's our timeline of how the story unfolded.

May 2014 The West Virginia University?s (WVU) Centre for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions publishes results of a study commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation that found significantly higher-than-claimed in-use emissions from two diesel cars, a 2012 Jetta and a 2013 Passat. A BMW X5 also tested passed the tests. 

WVU alerts California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the issue.

Summer 2014 Over the course of the year following the publication of the WVU study, VW continues to assert to CARB and the EPA that the increased emissions from these vehicles could be attributed to various technical issues and unexpected in-use conditions.

December 2014 VW issues a voluntary recall of approximately 500,000 vehicles to address the emissions issue.

6 May 2015 CARB, in coordination with the EPA, conducts follow-up testing of these vehicles both in the laboratory and during normal road operation to confirm the efficacy of VW?s recall. Testing shows the recall has had only a limited benefit.

None of the potential technical issues suggested by VW can explain the higher test results consistently confirmed during further testing by CARB.

Summer 2015 CARB and the EPA make it clear that they will not approve certificates of conformity - necessary for vehicles to be sold in the USA ? for VW?s 2016 model year diesel vehicles until the manufacturer car adequately explain the anomalous emissions and ensure the agencies that the 2016 model year vehicles would not have similar issues.

3 September 2015 During a meeting VW admits it has designed and installed a defeat device in these vehicles in the form of a sophisticated software algorithm that detects when a vehicle is undergoing emissions testing.

18 September 2015 CARB and the EPA make their findings public, stating that Volkswagen has violated two sections of the Clean Air Act, firstly by selling or offering for sale vehicles that did not comply with their certificates of conformity, and second by manufacturing and installing into these vehicles an electronic control module capable of switching its calibration to beat the emissions tests.

Read more on the Volkswagen emissions scandal:

Six things the firm could cut

Bugatti under threat as boss warns of 'painful' cuts

Blog - navel gazing at Volkswagen

Blog - Keeping up with pollution laws is not always easy for car makers

Blog - How Volkswagen can survive its emissions scandal

Goodwood Festival of Speed to celebrate the 'endless pursuit of power' in 2016
Goodwood Festival of Speed and Revival The Goodwood Festival of Speed will return in June next year, while the Goodwood Revival will honour driver Sir Jack Brabham in September

The Goodwood Festival of Speeed's theme will be "full throttle - the endless pursuit of power" when the event returns next Summer, it has been announced.

Revealing the event's theme for the first time, Goodwood's organisers said the festival would celebrate "the most powerful competition cars and motorcycles from the history of motor sport, and the heroic drivers and riders who tamed them."

As part of the Festival of Speed, which will run from 23-26 June 2016, there will be displays to honour the 100th running of the Indianapolis 500, the 50th anniversary of the inaugural Can-Am Series, and the 40th anniversary of James Hunt's Formula 1 World Championship win with McLaren in 1976.

The Moving Motor Show will return on 23 June, with the Festival of Speed proper taking place on 24-26 June.

The Moving Motor Show and Festival of Speed have risen in prominence in recent years and are viewed by many to be akin to an official British motor show, with various manufacturers using the event to launch new models in the UK.

New model launches at this year's Festival of Speed included the 800bhp Aston Martin Vulcan, the Lotus 3-ElevenMorgan's EV3 and the 600bhp Nissan Juke-R 2.0.

See more pictures from this year's Goodwood Festival of Speed

Also returning in 2016 will be the Goodwood Revival. Described as "the world's largest and most celebrated historic motor racing and vintage culture event," the Revival celebrates the glory days of Goodwood's motor circuit from 1948-66. For 2016, the event takes place on 9-11 September. The revival features historic motor racing, with most visitors and participants attending or taking part in period clothing.

In particular, this year's Goodwood Revival will celebrate the career of Sir Jack Brabham. A collection of single-seater, saloon and sports cars covering Brabham's career will be displayed as part of the event, with many of those cars taking part in on-track demonstrations.

Goodwood organiser Lord March said: "In dedicating the Revival driver tribute to Sir Jack Brabham, we will pay a fitting tribute to a man who forged strong links with Goodwood during the Motor Circuit?s active past and was an extremely popular guest at the Festival of Speed and Revival."

See more pictures from this year's Goodwood Revival


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